Gaga kska Meycow ka Madagascar, 20 00 S, 47 00 E ka gaga na nniqan. Kana ka knlbangan na o 587,041 sq km (hangan na o Tg47) (knlbanga dxgal o 581,540 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 5,501 sq km). Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 24,430,325 hiyi. Gaga Antananarivo ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 26 idas 6 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan. Manu ka dxgal Madagascar ga wada sugan 71.10% ka dxgal qpahan, 21.50% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 7.40% na.

Flag of Madagascar
Flag of Madagascar-Kwoci Madagasikara (馬達加斯加)
File:Seal of Madagascar.svg-Kwohwey (國徽)

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Hery Rajaonarimampianina, pnaah hngkawas2014 idas 1 jiyax 25pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:MDG orthographic.svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay (自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Ris (歷史)smmalu patas

Jidayi qnlhangan Fransi

Kngkawas 1883 cida, Fransi u knrmux Madagasikara, tumn1 muda pspuruq ka mccbu ka Madagasikara, pusu balay pa alaw “Patan Pnsdhuwan Ranpot” u ini srwanai Imorina wangkwo Babaw dnhdu mccbu daw, Madagasikara u wada dha subway Fransi ka alang mkbrnux tudaya trdunan asu Anciranana, kiya mi smquri mpslutuc  Ranpot pririh pila 56 knbkiyan hwarang. Kngkawas 1890 cida Ta Ingtikwo u wada smruwa Fransi ka mangal biyax qmlahang Madagasikara, binaw seyhu Madagasikara u ini sruwa thyi biyax Fransi. Alaw iyux pthyi Madagasikara, Fransi u brah mi thiti kngkawas 1894 idas 12 mi kngkawa 1895 idas 1 spuda ppuniq beyhing cnbu mi wada mangal tunarac mkngahu ucilung Tuamasina mi tuiwil mkngahu ucilung Mahacanka Lmutuc hiya ka 1 Fransi ini biyaw tuci butayi mquri Antananariho mcbu, klelu u alaw mnarux nyeyci mi ddulan lmlamu mnarux kiya ka wada mqraqil balay. Bukuy Dungan Fransi u kndadax Algeria mi tuhunac Sahara Ahurika smkaun miyah dmayaw. Kngkawas 1895 idas 9, butayi dhuq nganguc alang mkbrnux, spuda beyhing puniq cnbu wangkong, hbaraw bay sediq ka wada mrdang mi mangal ruqah, Ranawaro 2su bukung qridin pa alaw soniyi wada tosyang Fransi u mniq kngkawas 1896 wada mangal dxral Madagasikara, kiya ka mniq kngkawas 1897 pkla kari Fransi ka dmuwi biyax qmlahang Madagasikara, Imorina wangkwo u wada kasi krhak da, wangsu u wada pltadan mquri Ryoniwang mi Algeria. Tnxral u ida muda mssli pnsliyan dmuwi 2 kngkawas muda mdakar undo, binaw wada dha pixan da mi, mniq kngkawas 1897 da uka bbsngaw da.

Babaw dukuricu daw

Wada snbarah dukuricu dungan daw, mnuda mk4 ini pntna ndanan pntna ndanan Madagasikara, kcka hiya ka mntxan u muda msupu smmalu keyngpo. Kngkawas 1960 dhiq kngkawas 1972 ka tu1 konghekwo iyax niya, spuda snkulan Fransi ka soto Huyripeyar Ciranana ka dmudul, pusu na balay u quri so keyjay mi seyji u ida mwewaluk balay Fransi nina. Ida nanaq hbaraw bay sediq Fransi ka ngalan bukung mpdudul qqpahun, knkana qnlhangan sapah pyasan pa ida nanaq lmutuc dmuwi mptusa rmngaw kari Fransi, patas mi sstusa uri. So Ciranana niyi ‘Burah cmin cuyi’ tongcu u wada msang mi smriq balay kana ka sediq, hbaraw bay sediq mpqpah mi laqi muyas ka muda kangyi kmciyuk, hiti balay daw mniq kmngkawas 1972 pspaux seyhu niya.

Hataypay mpdudul niya, cida u Antananariho sucang Antri Racyawrina u mniq kngkawas 2009 pnrdingan cida dmudul sediq muda knciyuk, Rawarumanana u wada pkixun muway biyax mi wada plixan, binaw kana ndan niyi u ini pnlengu keyngpo kiya ka wada subway hangan ‘cngpyeyn’, ksngan hbaraw bay kwoci syakay uri.

Kngkawas 2009 cida, knbaraw hoeyng pkla kari Racyawrinana ka knbaraw kwotu seyhu soto, rinji qmlahang ciko niyi u pusu bay muda dmudul seyngkyo soto, kiya mi iyax niyi u muda  smdhu uuda kana qnlhangan. Kngkawas 2010 cida, Madagasikara u spuda kana sediq qnhlangan smruwa burah keyngpo, phiyu tu4 konghekwo,  kcka niyi u lmutuc keyngpo brah na mincu, knou tang cngcu cyeyko. Kngkawas 2013 idas 10 diyax 25, muda tumntxan soto mi gikay seyngkyo ka Madagasikara, tumn2 soto seyngkyo u mniq kngkawas 2013 idas 12 diyax 20 muda, kiya  mi mniq kngkawas 2014 idas 1 diyax 7 cida ka pkla, Ayri Racyawnari Mamanpiyanina ka mangal 53.5% hyo phyuwan burah soto.

Tiri地理)smmalu patas

Knrbangan tndxral Madagasikara u 59 knbkiyan pinghwang km, mniq anlangan qnhlangan u tu47 knbeyhing tndxral, kiya ka tu4 taw knkana qnlangan uri. Tndxral Madagasikara u to bay wa mniq nanwey 12˚dhuq 26˚, mniq iyax tongcing 43˚dhuq 51˚ Msdalih   tawyu u knkana tunarac  na Ryoniwang mi Morisis, kiya mi mquri tuiwil daya na Kmo mi Mayot. Tuiril na Mozambique ka msdalih balay qnlhangan taru. Madagasikara na qnlhangan taru.  

Singcng cyuhwa(行政區劃)smmalu patas

Fransi cmin tangcyu  u mniq kngkawas 1946 cida wada dha psnakan 6 ka singcngcyu Madagasikara (faritany mizakatena), kiya ka malu psuwan biyax qmlahang. Kngkawas 2004, 6 sng niyi u wada psnakan 22 cyu Dungan (faritra). Spuda  mnhdu ndanan kngkawas 2007 Madagasikara keyngpo kongto, ida n6 sng u wada laxan, cyu ka wada mkala knbaraw singcng tanwey alang. Trahuc cyu u psnakan 119 keyng, 1579 ka kongse (cngcn) ma 17485 secyu (alang) (fokontany).   

Cyu mi ida nniqan sng
Cyu Ida nniqan sng Kngkawas 2004 snpngan knhbrawan hiyi sediq
1.Tiyana cyu

2.Sawa cyu

Anciranana sng 1,291,100
3.Itasi

4.Anaramangka

5.Hwakinankarata

6. Pangkurahwa cyu

Antananariho sng 5,370,900
7.Sohuyya cyu

8.Poayni cyu

9.Peycipoka cyu

10.Meyraki cyu

Maha canka sng   1,896,000
11.Araawtra-Mankuro cyu  

12.Acinanana cyu

13. Anararankiro cyu

Tuamasina sng 2,855,600
14.Amoronimaniya cyu

15. Sangmaciyat cyu

16. Hwahwawey-Huytoweynani cyu

17.  Acimo-Acinanana cyu  

18.Ihworopey cyu

Huyyanarancua sng    3,730,200
19.Meypeyna cyu

20. Acimo-Antryeyhwana cyu

21.  Antroi cyu

22.Anosi cyu

Turiyara sng 2,430,100

Cngc(政治)smmalu patas

Kndadax kngkawas 1960 snpeyyah Fransi dukuricu daw, seyji Madagasikara u mnuda tnnayi dndulan hbaraw sediq hantay kangyi, mnpiya muda mtdiyal kari seyngkyo, mntxan tanhe, mn2 cyusu cngpyeyn mi mn1 mling pphuqil. Mnuda bsiyaq diyax so qnrqilan seyji ka Madagasikara, niyi u uxay wana keyjay tndxral, pnluban kana mpdayaw dhiya u wada dhuq 7 idas ka ini pangal kari mtdiyal, alaw so niyi wada song balay hmrinas ou kbkuy pila Amirika nngalan mpriwaw mi mawyi, lhaya ssalu Racyawrina ka dmudul quri hantay Rawarumanana uuda kangyi, kana ndanan niyi u niqan sasaw pqraqil, kiya mi niqan hmrinas 170 hiyi sediq ka wada phqilun. Kndadax kngkawas 2009 idas 3 prading, Madagasikara u mtmay Racyawrina cucng kwotu sci, mntxan cngpyeyn niyi u wada phtur dmayaw Madagasikara ka duma qnhlangan mi seyhu, kiya mi thtur uri ka pnluban mndungus waycyaw uri. Alaw so niyi wada thtur ka kkrana keyjay Madagasikara, kana mndungus bay ndanan seyhu cyxal u wada mkrau kana da. Uxay wana so kiya, seyji saya Madagasikara u alaw sediq Meyrina mniq 19 th smquri knlhangan mkngahu ucilung muda knrmux u wadaso snturung mqriqu niya uri. Mniq tubaraw dxral mi mkngahu ucilung na sediq u wada so ini mtbalay ka pnluban uri mi wada smpusal muda pspuruq mtdiyal.

Quri biyax sediq Madagasikara u niqan qlhangun kcka keyngpo, qnlhangan dha u mnatas quri pnsdhuwan Qnlangan biyax sediq mi pnsdhuwan biyax llaqi niya ka ou patas pnsdhuwan qnlangan. Quri snlhayan snhiyan, llutuc Sediq Tnpusu mi ppnsliyan singpyey u to bay qhlangan horicu kana. Mtrawah pqpringan mi pssli u mntana qlhangan horicu uri, binaw mniq balay uuda da u, mncun ini srwani muway patas snrwanan mi htranan seyhu ka hbaraw hiyi mssli kiya ka shtur dha quri knciyux seyji. Pndkanun duma qnlhangan dmuwi tikuh ka qlhangan horicu u, Madagasikara cuan butayi u dmuwi kusing kiya, kiya mi dmuwi biyax qnlhangan mipix u uka hari qtan kiya, binaw heytay mi keysacu u ida niqan ka knhmuc qmraq mi quri so uuda umowi pila. Rawarumanana u kngkawas 2004 phiyu hantay msburaw pumn ‘BIANCO’ (Iyin ‘Piank’), so niyi u Antananariho na turuma bukung mqnaqah piri u wada mtura bay  mlih, binaw tubaraw bukung u uka muda cisu kiya.

Jnko(人口)smmalu patas

Dhuq kngkawas 2016, knhbrawan hiyi sediq Madagasikara pa ya bay niqan 2500 knbkiyan hiyi sediq. Sediq Madagasikara u hmrinas knkana 90%, kiya mi malu pskanan 18 kluwanan joku. 21 th pnrdingan muda DNA keyngkyo pnklanan dha u, ciin sediq Madagasikara u pnspuwan Nataw minjoku mi sediq Pantu, ya bay pndmka, binaw niqan ka duma sediq secyu ciin dha u ptura sediq Nataw minjoku mi sediq Pantu uri, niqan ka Arapo, Indu mi Oco dara dha ka hbaraw balay uri. Tukcka dxral tubaraw na sediq Meyri u snpeyyah Nantaw minjoku piri ka knbaraw balay, minjoku niyi u knkana knhbrawan hiyi sediq Madagasikara na 26%, hmrinas knkingal minjoku; alang nniqan mkngahu ucilung u rudan cbiyaw dha u hbaraw ka snpeyyah sediq Pantu. Kana minjoku mkngahu ucilung u sediq Peycimisaraka ka hbaraw balay sediq, kiya ka knkana qnlhangan hiyi sediq na 14.9%, thiti niya daw 6% ka sediq Cimiheti mi sediq Sakarawa. Niqan ini khbaraw hiyi minjoku ka Hwayi, sediq Indu mi sediq Kmo, niqan duma ini khbaraw ka niqan daran sediq Oco, kcka hiya u snpeyyah Fransi ka hbaraw niya. 20 th thiti niya, duma llutuc ini khbaraw minjoku u alaw wada thdil duma mi mncun muda mtdiyal ka minjoku kiya ka wada mlih ka knhbrawan dha da, mray kngkawas 1976 sediq Kmo u alaw Mahacanka muda hantay Kmo mi kiya wada qduriq nganguc. Spngun ka niyi u, sediq Madagasikara thdil u uka ka knbeyhing balay lmlu. Sediq   Oco u kndadax dukuricu ka Madagasikara daw wada kndudul mlih, kndadax 1958 han u niqan 6 knbkiyan 8430 hiyi han wada mlih dhuq babaw 30 kngkawas daw 1 knbkiyan 7000 hiyi sediq. 20 th 80 kngkkawas kcka cida, knkana Madagasukara uniqan 25000 hiyi ka sediq Kmo, niqan 18000 hiyi ka sediq Idu, niqan 9000 hiyi ka Hwajn mniq qnlhangan Madagasikara.

Knkawas 2009 cida knkrana ryu knhbrawan hiyi sediq Madagasikara u ya bay 2.7%. Knhbrawan hiyi sediq u kndadax 1999 cida ka 220 knbkiyan hiyi sediq dhuq mkala ya bay 2200 knbkiyan hiyi sediq. Ya bay niqan 42.5% hiyi sediq u ini dhuq 15ngkawas, 54.5% ka wa mniq iyax 15 dhuq 64 kngkawas. Hmrinas 65 kngkawas ka rudan u knkana hiyi sediq 3% balay. Wada dukuricu ka qnhlangan daw, Madagasikara u wana kngkawas 1975 mi kngkawas 1993 ka mnuda smpu knhbrawan hiyi sediq. Kana qlhangan u wa mniq tunarac tubaraw dxral brnux mi tunarac mkngahu ucilung ka tqapur nniqan knhbrawan hiyi sediq, quri so tuiwil dxral sspriq brnux u ini balay pntna pdkanan.

Karac氣候)smmalu patas

Alaw dndulan pnspuwan bwihur tunarac hunac mi bwihur tuiwil daya, Madagasikara pa knkawas idas 11 dhuq so kawas idas 4 u to bay kntlxan bay qqyuxan, kiya mi yahan balay smliq bwihur kddiyax, kngkawas idas 5 dhuq idas 10 ka mtktu hari karac mi kndnguwan knkarac. Snpeyyah tukarac baraw rulung quyux ucilung Indu u, mniq dxral tunarac mkngahu ucilung tukarac baraw Madagasikara phrinas knou bay mhuriq hngak, mttuku bay pnhrnasan qsiya u dmkuh nniqan dxral quyux llmiqu kndkilan sitong. Tukcka tubaraw brnux unuqu kndnguwan mi kntltu dxral nniqan tunarac, dxral nniqan tuiwil u krinah bay kndnguwan kiya da, tuiwil hunac mi tuhunac kcka dxral Madagasikara u knkkarac dmka mdngu ka pusu balay. Kngkawas u qulung bay niqan mnou jetay spriq bwihur miyuk Madagasikara, beytaq bay smliq lhayan smnalu mi niqan sediq ka mrdang mi mluqah, smliq bay keyjay dha uri. Kngkawas 2004 cida, spriq bwihur Huyro u kiya ka kndadax niqan smpu patas prading knbeyhing bay spriq bwihur, wada mrdang 172 hiyi sediq, 21 knbkiyan 4260 hiyi sediq ka uka sapah nniqan dha, wada sliqan ka keyjay u hmrinas 2.5 oku pila Amirika.

Pnyahan pnatas (參考資料)smmalu patas