Flag of the Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands- Kwoci Netherlands(荷蘭國旗)

Netherlands(荷蘭)smmalu patas

 
File:Royal coat of arms of the Netherlands.svg-Kwohwey.(國徽)

Gaga kska Owcow ka Netherlands, 52 30 N, 5 45 E ka gaga na nniqan. Kana ka knlbangan na o 41,543 sq km(hangan na o Tg135) (knlbanga dxgal o 33,893 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 7,650 sq km). Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 17,016,967 hiyi. Gaga Amsterdam ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 27 idas 4 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan. Manu ka dxgal Netherlands ga wada sugan 55.10% ka dxgal qpahan, 10.80% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 34.10% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Willem-Alexander, pnaah hngkawas2013 idas 4 jiyax 30pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

 
File:EU-Netherlands.svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay.(自然地理位置

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Ri-s(歷史)smmalu patas

Ini qlhangi Roma Tikwo brah cida ka Netherlands han pa, niqan ka qnbhangan kari sediq Kyle mi sediq Germanic ka mnniq hini.

Qnlhangan Moma Tikwo jiday na Netherlands (BC. Kngkawas 55-410)smmalu patas

Mniq mncbiyaw Roma jiday, nniqan Yayung Rhine brah u ‘mnBelgium Gaul’ Sng han, hiti daw wada ‘mnGermanic Sing Sng’. Nniqan tudaya u niqan hbaraw bay alang Germanic ka mniq hiyi, tuhunac ka sediq Gaul, kiya mi dsediq Gaul niyi u mniq thdil cida u wada pspuwan ou bay alang Germanic uri, kcka niya sediq Salion Frank u snpeyyah hini wada thdil Gaul, kiya mi mniq kongweyn 5 th wada phiyu kiya ka mbiyax na balay Merlot Wangcaw (Merovingian dynasty).

Habsburg jiday na Netherlands (Kngkawas 1519-1581)smmalu patas

Tukcka th, qnlhangan mniq dxral rrbuq (To bay knkana nniqan Netherlands, nniqan tuiwil Doicu, Luxembourg, Belgium, duma nniqan tudaya France) mnniqan ou balay cuho fongcyeyn tndxral, psnakan mnBourgogne (Duchy of Burgundy) mi Snpruwan Balay Roma Tikwo. Dhuq 16 th bhah cida, alaw mrrimax na hwangsu msturung, dhiya u mniq kcka snpruwan Roma Tikwo Habsburg Wangcaw cida wada pskngalan. Kngkawas 1556 tikwo hwangti Charlie 5 th (Kngkawas 1519-1556 ngalan bukung) malix bukung, wada niya psuwan laqi niya Philip 2 th ka Spain mi rrbuq dxrasl (Wada splawa Tudaya Sng), wada niya subway swayi na Ferdinand ka Austria mi duma nniqan mi Habsburg Wangcaw cngtong. So kiya, Tudaya Nniqan Sng u mnSpain Wangkwo.

Netherlands 7 Sng Konghkwo Jiday (Kngkawas 1581-1795)smmalu patas

Kngkawas 1568, alaw knciyuk Spain Wangkwo congyang cicweyn mi tmraqil Kiristokyo Burah Kyokay Calvin Pay, pspuruq Tudaya Sng knciyuk Spain mccbu 80 kngkawas. Kngkawas 1579 Tudaya Sng kcka 7 Sng (nniqan dxral Netherland, Belgiuum mi Luxembourg saya) wada phiyu Utrecht Tongmong, msupu muda knciyuk qlhangan Spain. Niyi u kiya ka prading ngalan Netherlands saya. Kngkawas 1581, ryeynmong u mndungus bay pkla kari dukuricu. Lmutuc ka mccbu, dhuq kngkawas 1648 bukung qnlhangan Spain Philip 4 th ka hana psdhu pbatas “Patas Pnsdhuwan Munster”, smruwa 7 dxral rbuq (Netherlands)/ 7 Sng Ryeynho Konghkwo, speyyah Spain mangal dukuricu daw, Netherlands u wada pkrana mu17 th mtnucilung mi mawyi mbiyax qnlhangan. Netherlands u mniq qnlangan knkingal dxral phiyu qlhangan mi nniqan mawyi, kiya ka knkana duma nniqan Taiwan pa mniq kngkawas kngkawas 1624 dhuq kngkawas 1662 mi kngkawas 1664 dhuq kngkawas 1667 cida pa mndxral qlhangan Netherlands uri. Diyax iyax niyi pa mniq Netherlands u ngalan dha diyax ‘King Jiday’. Kndadax prading dhuq hiti u wada ptrawah mi qmlahang 4 dxral nniqan, kiya ka New Youk, Tuhunac Afrika, Indonesia mi Taiwan.

17 th thiti daw, Netherlands pa brah mi bukuy u mnccbu Ingkoku mi France, mniq ucilung u wada ini baka Ingkoku ku ka Netherlands (Mccbu Ingkoku mi Netherlands), mniq dxral u wada ini baka France ka Netherlands (Mccbu France mi Netherlands), kndadax hiya daw kiya ka wada kndudul mtuting ka biyax dha da.

Kngkawas 1740 (Kngkawas Cing Cyeynrong 5) idas 10 diyax 9-12, mnniq Java Batawiya (wa mniq Indonesia Java Taw Jakarta saya) pspuruq sediq Netherlands phuqil Hwajn tnhdilan na Hongsi Canan, Hwajn u hmrinas knbkiyan hiyi ka wada mhuqil.

Wada ulkan knrmux France jiday (Kngkawas 1795-1814)smmalu patas

Kngkawas 1795 cida wada ulkan knrmux France Tikwo ka Netherlands, Napoleon brah mi bukuy pa mniq hini muda dmudul Batawiya Konghkwo mi Netherlands Wangkwo.

Netherlands Wangkwo Jiday (Kngkawas 1815-1940)smmalu patas

Wada mnhdu qnlhangan Napoleon kngkawas 1815 cida ka Franse daw, Netherlands mi Belgium saya, Luxembourg saya u wada msupu pnsliyan Netherlands Wangkwo. Belgium u wada ini biyaw mniq kngkawas 1830 dukuricu, Luxembourg uri u wada msnul dukuricu uri, tndxral Netherlands u wada nanaq lmutuc Netherlands Wangkwo.

Tumndha Knbeyhing Mccbu Qnlangan (Kngkawas 1940-1945)smmalu patas

Netherlands mniq kcka Tumn1 Knbeyhing Mccbu Qnlangan pa muda congri kiya.  

Netherlands u mniq kcka Tumn2 Knbeyhing Mccbu Qnlangan kndadax kngkawas 1940 idas 5 cida wada yahan ulkan knrmux Doicu, dhuq kngkawas 1945 cida u hana wada plaxan qmlahang.

Babaw mnhdu mnccbu jiday (Kngkawas 1945 dhuq saya)smmalu patas

Babaw mnccbu daw, wada mntxan mtutuy mi mdakil mkrana ka keyjay Netherlands Dungan. Netherlands ka B (Belgium), Ho (Netherlands), L (Luxembourg) na mnsupu tumal Keyjay Ryeynmong, O Co Keyjay Kongtongti mi Tudaya Pnsdhuwan niya.

Mniq kngkawas 1945 idas 12 diyax 15, Netherlands u wada dha pdaun ka “Patas Pnsdhuwan Netherlands Wangkwo” (Het Statuut), kiya ida nanaq dxral qlhangan Netherlands mi mndxral dha pa mniq kcka wangkwo mi tndxral Netherlands u niqan mntna hniwan dha kana. Snpeyyah hiya cida Netherlands Wangkwo u tmiyu tndxral Netherlands mi pnsliyan duma brah qmnlhangan dxral na wangkwo, kiya mi ‘Netherlands’ u wana nanaq tmiyu O Co Talu Netherlands. Netherlands Wangkwo saya u niqan 4 nniqan dxral, kiya ka O Co Talu Netherlands, Aruba, Curacao mi mnNetherlands Martin, kiya mi Hanajima, Sint Eustatius Taw mi mn Netherlands Sabah Taw u wada pspuwan tndxral Netherlands mi wada ngalan tukubeycu singcngcyu kiya da.

Ti-ri(地理)smmalu patas

O Co cyu Netherlands(歐洲區荷蘭)smmalu patas

Mbrnux ka lnlingay dxral Netherlands tukubeycu na balay. Tndxral qnlhangan dha pa hmrinas dmka u ini khrinas 1m ka haypa niya, 26% dxral u ini knrinas knbaraw ucilung. Duma nniqan u spuda qnriyan ucilung mi wada smluwan dxral nniqan, mray so nniqan knkana dxral Flevoland Sng. Rrbuq dxral niyi u to wada smluwan qnalang sbangan ucilung kana muda qmlahang nniqan dha. Kiya mi sediq Netherlands u kndadax cbiyaw dhuq saya mppluk dxral ucilung, qnita dha sediq Netherlands pa knbeyhing balay payis dha ka ucilung. Knbaraw bay dxral O Co cyu Netherlands pa kiya ka wa mniq qnlhangan dha tunarac hunac balay na Dwiyaq Vals, hapa 321m, binaw knkana balay Netherlands tubaraw balay ka wa mniq Ucilung Caribean Sabah Taw na Ddwiyaq Landscape, knbaraw niya u 887m, hini u kiya ka knbaraw na balay knkana Netherlands Wangkwo uri.

Yayung Rhine, Yayung Val mi Yayung Mas u wada dha psdkanan m2 ka Netherlands.

Rngecux qsiya(洪水)smmalu patas

Kndadax cbiyaw, alaw qnrqilan ida nkiya mi tumal ka ssediq, Netherlands na ayus mkngalu ucilung u ida ini sangay knpriyux. Niqan bay hnhangan ka ndanan kngkawas 1134 knbeyhing bwihur, wada sqrbuq bungan kcka ucilung ka knou bay dxral dha, kiya ka smnlanan ka Zeeland Sng tuiwil hunac na cyutaw.

Kngkawas 1278 idas 12 diyax 14 cida, Qnrqilan Rngecux Saint Lucia (St. Lucia's flood) u wada niqan hmrinas 5 knbkiyan hiyi sediq ka mrdang Netherlands mi Doicu, kiya ndanan rikisi Netherlands knchdil balay mn1 qnrqilan rngecux uri. Kngkawas 1421 Rngecux Qnrqilan Sng Elisabeth (St. Elizabeth flood) daw, wada smliq knou bay dxral qnpahan, niqan 72 pinghwang km na Biesbosch cawsi rngecux mbrnux ka pcriyu. Kngkawas 1953 idas 2, Ucilung Tudaya u yahan rngecux qsiya, wada sliqan rngecux ka knou balay sbangan ucilung tuiwil hunac Netherlands, niqan hmrinas 1,800 hiyi sediq ka wada dsun rngecux mi mrdang. So kiya u seyhu Netherlands ka muda keykaku knbeyhing bay qndahang rrngecux, kiya ka muda qmlahang qnlhangan dha so ini yahi knrmux rrngecux, kcka niqan bay hnhangan niya ka Turu Hungun Co kongcng.

Kngkarac(氣候)smmalu patas

O Co cyu Netherlands yupan balaybwihur snpeyyah Acores kawya bwihur tuiwil hunac, kngkarac mnMtilux Hari Hayyangsing, misan ka muxul mi mtltu ka rbawan, qnyuxan qsiya tnkawas u 650-700 hwami. Binaw Ucilung Caribbean na Bonaire u kngkarac mnMtilux Dmka Kndnguwan; Sabah mi Sng Eustatius ka nniqan mtilux mi mhuriq.

Netherlands Caribbean Cyu(荷蘭加勒比區)smmalu patas

Netherlands Caribbean Cyu ka 3 tndxral tukubeycu singcngcyu: Bonaire Taw, Sng Eustatius Taw mi mnNetherlands Sabah Taw na pnspuwan hangan, splawa dha BES tawyu uri.

Singcng cyuhwa(行政區劃)smmalu patas

Nniqan O Co(歐洲部分)smmalu patas

Netherlands pa psnakan 12 Sng:荷蘭分為12個省:

Groningen Sng- Tunarac daya, Sng huy ka Groningen.

格羅寧根省—東北部,省會是格羅寧根

Friesland Sng- Tudaya, Sng huy ka Revaden.

菲士蘭省—北部,省會是雷瓦登

Drenthe Sng- Tunarac daya, tuhunac Groningen, Sng huy ka Assen.

德倫特省—東北部,格羅寧根之南,省會是阿森

Baraw Esser- Tunarac, tuhunac Drenthe, Sng huy ka Zwolle.

上愛塞省—東部,德倫特之南,省會是茲沃勒

Flevoland Sng- Tukckas, Ijsselmeer, Sng huy ka Lelystad.

夫利佛蘭省—中部,愛塞湖,省會是萊利斯塔德

Gelderland Sng- Tunarac, tuhunac Baraw Esser, Sng huy ka Arnhem.

海爾德蘭省—東部,上愛塞之南,省會是阿納姆

Utrecht Sng- Tukcka, Sng huy ka Utrecht.

烏特勒支省—中部,省會是烏特勒支

Tudaya Netherlands Sng- Tuiwil daya, Sng huy ka Hallam.

北荷蘭省 - 西北部,省會是哈勒姆

Tuhunac Netherlands Sng- Tukcka mquru tuiwil, Sng huy ka Hague.

南荷蘭省 - 中部偏西,省會是海牙

Zeeland Sng- Tuiwil hunac, Sng huy ka Middelburg.

澤蘭省 - 西南部,省會是米德爾堡

Tudaya Brabant Sng- Tuhunac, Sng huy ka Shertogenbosch.

北布拉邦省 - 南部,省會是斯海爾托亨博斯

Limburg Sng- Tunarac hunac, lmutuc dhuq Belgium, Sng huy ka Mestreech.

林堡省 - 東南部,延伸到比利時,省會是馬斯垂克。


Trahuc Sng u phiyu Su Cn (gemeenten), sani mita ka seyji Su Cn Netherlands.

省下設市鎮(gemeenten),參見荷蘭市鎮政治。

Nniqan Ucilungc Caribbean(加勒比海部分)smmalu patas

Splawa旗幟 Hangan名稱 Sohu首府 Knbeyhing bay alang mkbrnux最大都市 Knbeyhing dxral面積

(km²)

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq人口

31-12-2012

Jnko mitu人口密度

(per km²)

Bonaire波奈 Kralendijk  克拉倫代克 Kralendijk  克拉倫代克 288 17,408 60
Sng Eustatius聖佑達修斯 Oranjestad奧拉涅斯塔德 Oranjestad奧拉涅斯塔德 21 3,897 186
MnNetherlands Sabah  荷屬沙巴 Botan博坦 Botan博坦 13 1,991 153
總計 322 23,296 72

Seyji(政治)smmalu patas

Cngtang(政黨)smmalu patas

Kndadax kngkawas 1581 dhuq kngkawas 1806, Netherlands ka kongh ticu, binaw uxay pnwaya gikay mincu qnlhangan. Babar niya kngkawas 1806 dhuq kngkawas 1815, wada dan tnayis qmlahang France ka Netherlands. Kndadax kngkawas 1815 prading, Netherlands ida nanaq pnwaya bungkung phiyu keyngpo na qnlhangan.

Snpeyyah kngkawas 2013, bukung qnlhangan William Alexander ka muda psdhu phyuwan weynso qnlhangan dhuq saya. Balay balay mndungus kari pa, bukung qnlhangan u niqan biyax psdhu phiyu pnspuwan mpqpah seyhu. Balay bay u spuda ndanan seyngkyo phiyu ryeynho seyhu, kiya daw spuda bukung qnlhangan ka muda pkla kari uuda psdhu pusu tunux seyhu.   

Netherlands gikay u pnspuwan turuma giying (Tu2 ying) mi tubaraw (tu1 ying). 150 hiyi gying ka pnspuwan turuma giying, mk4 kngkawas muda seyngkyo mn1, malu mtbrah knpriyux seyngkyo uri, kiya u pnwaya seyngkyo u pnwaya piri dayhyo. Alaw hbaraw ka cngtang turuma giying, so kiya seyngkyo daw uka brahan spuda murux taxa cngtang ka malu pssli seyhu, so kiya daw muda pssli seyhu iyax niya u ya bay musa mkpiya idas hari, binaw ryeynho seyhu u kasi ka mniq turuma giying mangal knhbrawan ging ka smruwah dmkuh, binaw ana ini angal knhbrawan hiyi giying tubaraw giying ka smruwa dmkuh. Tiping biyax niya ka tubaraw giying, tubaraw giying pa mk4 kngkawas daw spuda mnangal burah Sng gikay ging, spuda ndanan seyngkyo tnualang umau pnspuwan.

Keyngpo Netherlands pa muda pnwaya uri, hoying pusu ka suhwa cikwan u naqah pkla kari pnuda kwohuy mnuda ka hwaang smliq waya keyngpo.

Qnita seyji sweycya pa Netherlands u mndungus bay pnqita mnduwa pprngaw mincu cngti

Kngkawas 2010 Netherlands muda knbeyhing seyngkyo, Netherlands u muda gikay turuma giying seyngkyo. Babaw seyngkyo daw, Netherlands Kiristo Kyo Mincu Ryeynmong mi Mtrawah Mincu Jnmin Tang pssli phiyu kcka mquri narac ini khbaraw pay ryeynho seyhu, wada hbaraw bay Mtrawah Tang ka dmkuh snhiyi tonggi. Kngkawas 2010 idas 10 diyax 24, Mark Rutte ka psdhuwan phiyu sosyang mi lmutuc rmirih Jan Peter Balkenende, wada m92 kngkawas Netherlands muwaya bay Mtrawah Mincu Jnmin Tang na sosyang. Kngkawas 2012 cida tubrah knama mtalax ka ryeynho seyhu, knbeyhing seyngkyo u wada tubrah muda. Mniq snburah seyngkyo ka knbeyhing seyngkyo u, Mtrawah Mincu Jnmin Tang ka wada mangal 41 hiyi giying, Kong Tang u wada mangal 38 hiyi giying, babaw seyngkyo daw Mtrawah Mincu Jnmin Tang mi Kong Tang ka msupu pssli phiyu beyhing ryeynho seyhu.

Jen-ko(人口)smmalu patas

Netherlands ka qnlangan babaw dxral mitu knhbrawan sediq knbeyhing bay qnlhangan uri. Mitu niya knhbrawan hiyi sediq pa hmrinas 400 hiyi sediq/pinghwang km.

Mniq Netherlands u niqan knou bay kluwanan minjoku sediq. Ana so kiya, mndungus bay dara sediq Netherlands u ida tnpusu balay knhbrawan hiyi sediq.

80.9% sediq Netherlands荷蘭人

2.4% sediq Indonesia印度尼西亞人

2.4% sediq Doicu德國人

2.2% sediq Turkey土耳其人

2.0% sediq Suriname蘇利南人

1.9% sediq Morocco摩洛哥人

0.8% mnNetherlands sediq Antilles mi sediq Aruba

荷屬安第列斯人和阿魯巴人

6.0% Minjoku icil其他種族

Kari(語言)smmalu patas

Kari Netherlands ka kari ddiyun seyhu Netherlands, mnIn O yusi Germanic kari joku truma na cida kari Germanic, kiya ka Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname mi mnNetherlands Antilles Cyutaw na kari seyhu. Mniq knkana dxral Antilles mi nniqan tudaya Belgium na Vlaanderen u malu ppwaluk pprngaw kana. O Co u ya bay niqan 2400 knbkiyan hiyi sediq dmuwi kari Netherlands ka ngalan dha tu1 kari, niqan uri ka mnqlhangan Netherlands 4 th na Indonesia u srngaw dha balay kddiyax uri. Spatas Kari Netherlands pa spuda 26 uxay daw 27 na bbtasun ji Rating pnspuwan, snpeyyah A dhuq Z, kiya mi mniq Y bukuy u niqan IJ. Kari Netherlands pa mncuwil dmuwi IJ rmirih Y.

Kari Netherlands mi kari Ingkoku mi kari Doicu u msdalih hari, mntna mntuiwil cida kari Germanic kana. Kari Germanic ka snpeyyah rbuq dxral kari Doicu knou kluwan kari knpriyux niya, tumncbiyaw balay patas kari Netherlands u malu bhraun dhuq 12 th na Vlaanderen. Jiday cida u kari Netherlands ka pnspuwan 5 kluwanan kari: Kari Tukcka iwil (Kiya ka knkana Tuhunac, Tudaya Netherlands Sng, Utrecht Sng, Gelderland Sng na knou nniqan mi Sealand na tawyu hiya ka dmuwi kari niyi), Kari Tunarac Daya (Groningen, Drenthe, Baraw Esser mi Gelderland tunarac ka dmuwi kari niyi), Kari Tukcka Hunac (Tudaya Brabant mi ssiyaw dha nniqan Limburg, Belgium na Antwerp, Brabant mi Tunarac Vlaanderen), Kari Tuiwil Hunac (Tuiwil Vlaanderen) mi Kari Tunarac Hunac, Kari Tunarac Hunac u wada dha splawa Kari Tunarac Rbuq Dxral Frank, niqan 3 pnsliyan daw wada dha splawa Kari Tuiwil Rbuq Dxrak Frank. Netherlands na kari Friesland pa wada ngalan kingal kluwanan kari: Kari Friesland. Kari Tuhunac Afrika, splawa dha ‘KariTuhunac Afrika Netherlands’, kiya ka 17 th mpqlahang niya rmnngaw kari Netherlands na knpriyux kari, niqan knou bay kari Malay, kari Bantu na knbarux kari mi dduwi kari ka wisu mrimax kcka hiya, hangan kluwan pusu rudan cbiyaw sediq bhuway Tuhunac Afrika ka sediq Boer, kiya mi pusu pnyahan kari niyi u snpeyyah kari Netherlands na boer (sediq mpqpah pnwalang) kari niyi.

Kingal Dungan tu1 kari icil Netherlands ka kari Ingkoku, pnkla kari seyhu u niqan 95%-98% knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka wana mkla rmngaw kari Ingkoku.

Bungka(文化)smmalu patas

Yisu(藝術)smmalu patas

Netherlands mntuting hbaraw hiyi niqan bay hnhangan mpjuga sediq. Tudaya Pkrana Wenyi Jiday cida daw tna niqan pcriyu ka mnbrah balay Netherlands juga pay. 17 th cida, mnbiyax bay cida ka Netherlands Konghkwo u pcriyu ka Netherlands king jiday juga, Netherlands pcriyu ka Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Havickszoon Steen mi duma mpjuga sediq. 19 th mi 20 th mpjuga sediq u kiya ka knkana Van Gogh mi Piet Cornelies Mondrian. Kiya mi Maurits Cornelis Escher u taxa niqan balay hnhangan tusing yisucya.

Coswey mi wenswey(哲學和文學)smmalu patas

Cosweycya Netherlands u kiya ka knkana Desiderius Erasmus mi Baruch de Spinoza. Cosweycya France Descartes pusu bnatas niya u mntna mnhdu matas hini cida uri.

Mniq ‘King Kngkawas Cida’, Netherlands wenswey u mn10 mrana balay uri, wada mtutuy ka Joost Van Den Vondel mi Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft ddha hiyi nniqan bay hangan mpbatas. 20 th pusu balay mpbatas niya ka Harry Kurt Victor Mulisch, Jan Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk, Cees Nooteboom, Gerard Reve mi Willem Frederik Hermans.

Tiyu(體育)smmalu patas

Mntna balay qnlhangan O Co uri, mtur boru ka tu1 undo Netherlands, Netherlands Qnlhangan Mtur Boru Tuy ka O Co 1 seyng mbiyax na balay mpsburu niya, niqan ‘Mmudu Rakkaw Lukus Pngtwan’ mi ‘Bukung Uka Nngalan’ ka hangan splawa dha, mn3 mnangal Qnlangan Pey tu2 bang, kiya u mniq kngkawas 1988 Netherlands 3 cyeynko cida mangal O Co Qnlhangan Pey tu1ci bang. Netherlands cida uri u mntutuy ka hbaraw balay niqan hnhangan mpbtur boru niya. Pangcyo mniq tndxral dha Netherlands u ana ini so khbaraw ka qmita niya, binaw mniq mndxral dha nganguc Curacao mi Aruba ka mrana balay, Netherlands pangcyo taypyawtuy u knttu mniq knbeyhing qnlangan pnsung boru mangal snadu, kiya ka O Co niqan ka ririh dha mbiyax bay mpcbu boru.

Kngkarac(氣候)smmalu patas

Snlhayan snhiyan(宗教)smmalu patas

Netherlands u snbeyhing mita mtrawah snlhayan snhiyan. Saya pquri so O Co qnlhangan icil pa, Netherlands ka O Co saya mnbabaw dxral balay na qnlhangan uri, 67.8% knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka uka snlhayan snhiyan, uxay daw ini tumal uuda psliyan snlhayan. Netherlands pusu balay snlhayan u kiya ka knkana Teyngs kyo (24.6%) mi Kiristo kyo burah kyokay (10.8). Singjya Tengs kyo pa pusu balay u wa mniq tuhunac nniqan, kiya mi Kiristo kyo burah kyokay u, pusu balay ka Netherlands Kweycng Kyokay, mnCalvin cyawpay, rikisi cbiyaw u mntxtaxa sediq snhiyi han, saya daw wada mlih da. Kiya uri u alaw hbaraw ka sediq tnhdilan Muslim, wada dhuq knkana knhbrawan hiyi sediq qnlhangan 5%, kiya ka wada tu3 knbeyhing snlhayan snhiyan Netherlands ka Muslim. Kiya mi, Netherlands u niqan hbaraw sinjya Bu kyo, Yodaya kyo mi India kyo uri ka Netherlands.

Mssruwa na syakay hungci(寬容的社會風氣)smmalu patas

Netherlands u niqan bay hnhangan dha syakay hungci mssruwa ptrawah balay qcahur dha. Kiya uri u, Netherlands u dhuq pnluban lmngelung mawyi, phpah yucinsyang, rulu bwihur, kucu qhuni, weluq miruku mi bhuway tmkarac rakaw cayyo tawci uri ppwaluk. Mniq kngkawas 2001 idas 4 diyax 1, Netherlands u wada mtu1 qnlangan smruwa pnwaya tongsing msturung na qnlhangan. Mniq kngkawas 2002 idas 4 diyax 1, Netherlands pa wada mntu1 qnlangan smruwa pnwaya Anre Mhuqil na qnlhangan. Kiya mi Netherlands u mquri so dama mi uxay kasi qhuqil na doku, singcyawyi mi mangal laqi nbuyas na horicu mniq qnlangan u kiya ka kntrawah balay kiya. Netherlands snblayaq balay qmita quri so sediq tnldilan na qnlhangan, niqan hbaraw balay sediq Netherlands uri ka thdil qnlhangan icil.

Cing-ci(經濟)smmalu patas

Kongyey(工業)smmalu patas

Mrana balay ka kongyey Netherlands, pusu balay kongyey pumn u niqan uuqun cyakong, gasoring cyakong, kmari king, smalu kikay, tyeyncu, xxiluy, smalu asu, insacu, tqliwaq btunux cyakong uri. Rotterdam ka O Co knbeyhing balay smluwan gasoring congsin. Netherlands u niqan ou balay niqan hnhangan kojyo hmqangaw qnlhangan, kngkawas 2011 u niqan 12 Netherlands ciyey mtmay ‘QNLANGAN 500 Mbiyax’.

Mray so: Netherlands Hwangcya Shell Citwan (Spuda Netherlands Hwangcya Gasoring Kojyo mi Ingkoku Shell Mphaqun mi Mawyi Kojyo mniq kngkawas 1907 wada mnsupu, kiya ka qnlangan knbeyhing balay kongyey kojyo uri, wada mbiyax mniq qnlangan 500 ciyey tu2 bang, kiya mi gasoring mi suhwa jnryaw na tu2 bang biyax dha pnyahan mi pbari, kiya ka qnlangan tu2 knbeyhing gasoring kojyo); Philips tyeyncu kojyo (pnhiyu kngkawas 1891, mniq qnlangan 500 mbiyax ciyey tu277 bnkuwan, mniq kcka qnlangan tyeyncu ciyey tnbkuwan tubrah 10 bang. Quri so camaaw pkrdax, kluwan rakaw syeynsyangkwan, teyntong ssaqic ngudus, X rdax hunsiyi mi pradiyo sepey mniq mntna qqpahan niya pa ida mniq brah ka hnyuwan dha); Ryeynho Rihwa kojyo (pnhiyu kngkawas 1930, mniq qnlangan 500 mbiyax ciyey kcka u tu136 tbnkuwan, kiya ka qnlhangan knbeyhing balay ddiyun kddiyax mi uuqun sngcan ciyey uri, psuwan Rotterdam mi London ddha congpu), Netherlands u seykining ppeyyah uuqun, Ingkoku ka seykining ppeyyah qqiya ddiyun kddiyax); Aksu Nobel Kojyo (nniqan bay hnhangan qnlangan hwakong mi qqpahun iyu, kngkawas 1994 snpeyyah Netherlands Aksu kojyo mi Sweden Nobel kojyo pnspuwan kiya, mniq qnlangan 500 mbiyax ciyey u tbkuwan 479).

Qpahan pnwalang(農業)smmalu patas

Netherlands ka kcka qnlhangan qqpahan pnwalang mrana balay qnlhangan uri, nngalan knkana kcka qnlhangan 2% ka qqpahan pnwalang u, kiya ka qnlangan pusu balay pnyahan qqpahan pnwalang qnlhangan uri. Pnspuwan kcka qqpahan pnwalang u, qqpahan tmabu tnbuwan ka 50%, qqpahan pphpah mi qqhuni ka 38%, qqpahan phuma ka 12%. Kngkawas 2005 cida Netherlands u mnsmlanan pnyahan pnwalang mi uuqun cuko nngalan pila u 789.3 oku pila Amirika na ndanan dha. Netherlands u pdkanan taxa sediq u niqan 1/10 dapa, 1 babuy, mniq qqpahan tmabu tnbuwan wada mtrawah qnlhangan hangryey. Dxral qnlhangan Netherlands u wana balay 41500 pinghwang km, binaw knkana qnlhangan u niqan 110 pinghwang km ka ngalan dha wensu phuma pphpah mi hiyi pnwalang mi sama, so kiya wada mangal ‘O Co Nniqan Phpah’ ka knmalu hangan dha. Pphpah ka pusu balay qqpahan pnyahan dmkuh Netherlands, tnkawas cuko dhuq 100 oku pila O weyn, cuko ryang u knkana kwoci sucang 60%. Netherlands ka pnyahan qnlangan weluq miriku knbeyhing balay qnlhangan, qnlangan babaw dxral knnama balay phiyu Hawta Weluq Miruku Cyawyi Congsin nniqan balay hnhangan dha uri, diyax ndan dha u wada niqan 300 kngkawas qnbsyaqan da. Kiya uri u, Netherlands ka pusu balay qnlhangan pyahan phuma bunga tumun uri.

Ppanan rulu(交通運輸)smmalu patas

Ppanan asu mi rulu Netherlands pa mndungus balay. Elu yayung kcka qnlhangan mndungus balay, elu asu u ppwaluk mi mndungus balay uri. Mquri tuhunac pyahan Ucilung Daya ka Yayung Rhine ka mtbiyax balay yayung knkana qnlangan ppanan asu uri. Kiya mi rhngun yayung ka Rotterdam ka knkana qnlangan knbeyhing balay tdruwan asu, twenturyang u mn42 kngkawas knkana qnlangan tu1ci bang. Ppanan skoki Amsterdam ka pusu balay ppanan skoki O Co, mnou balay wada mangal hangan knmalu balay ppanan skoki knkana qnlangan. Mdhu balay lnlungan dha qqlahang lnglingay dxral ka Netherlands, txtaxa sediq jncyun u niqan 2 ddeyngsya, ddeyngsya ka pusu balay ppanan dha, alang mkbrnux u wada smluwan lxanan balay elu ddaun ddeyngsya.

Huwuyey(服務業)smmalu patas

Snpeyyah 20 th 80 kngkkawas dhuq saya, huwuyey ka wada ini biyaw mrana, wada mpusu balay stmanan keyjay sediq qnlhangan Netherlands. Pusu balay qqpahan pnyahan ka ppanan, ginghang, pawsyeyn, kusu, rryawan mi uuqan mi mmahan. N=Niqan ou nniqan bay hnhangan ginghang mi cinjong ciko ka Netherlands. Mray so : Netherlands Ginghang (Snpeyyah Netherlands Tongyong Ginghang mi Amsterdam-Rotterdam Ginghang mnniq kngkawas 1991 pnspuwan dha, mniq knkana qnlangan u niqan 3000 sngari cida ciko niya, kiya ka knkana qnlangan niqan ginghang wangrwo knou balay uri. Ginghang tnbkuwan O Co u wa mniq tubrah 10, qnlhangan u wa mniq tubrah20); Netherlands Kwoci Citwan (kiya ka ING, snpeyyah Netherlands congcang- Yobing Citwan mi Netherlands Kwomin Jnso Pawsyeyn Kojyo mniq kngkawas 1991 pnspuwan dha. Kiya ka tu1 knbeyhing balay cinjong ciko, mniq kngkawas 2011 kcka Knkana Qnlangan 500 Mbiyax Ciyey u tu17 tnbkuwan niya); Netherlands Qqpahan Pnwalang Hcwo Ginghang (Spuda Netherlands ou balay nongcwen sinyongso mniq kngkawas 1973 pnspuwan dha, kiya ka Netherlands tu2 knbeyhing ginghang, mniq knkana qnlangan u tu50 mbiyax niya).

Qqpahan mpriwaw(旅遊業)smmalu patas

Niqan ‘O Co Nniqan Pphpah’ mi ‘Qnlhangan Rulu Bwihur’ sunca dha lmawa ka Netherlands, qqpahan rmiwaw u mrana balay, niqan balay hnhangan ka qnepah dha hmtur ucilung smmalu elu, malu balay qtan ka pnhmanan cyu pphpah yucinsyang (Netherlands u niqan ‘Yucinsyang Wangkwo’ sunca hangan dha, yucinsyang ka phpah qnlhangan dha), nniqan bay hangan ka weluq miriku alang mkbrnux tiping Hawta (niqan knkana qnlangan tu1 weluq miruku cyawyi congsin), htngayan balay ncbiyaw hngakan ka knbeyhing bay rrulu bwihur (Netherlands ka ou bay rulu bwihur na qnlhangan) kiya ka malu balay sanan sdmhaw rmiwaw kana.

Mquri nganguc mawyi(對外貿易)smmalu patas

Netherlands pa kndadax cbiyaw daw ida kiya mawyi mbiyax balay qnlhangan, mniq 17 th tubrah cida niqan ‘Macohu Ucilung’ sunca dha tmhangan, sotu Amsterdam mniq cida ka hniwan niya u mntna balay so New York saya. Ana dhuq saya, Netherlands uquri so mquri nganguc mawyi pa ida mniq dmudul balay knkana qnlangan, Netherlands ka msnul bukuy Amirika mi France na knkana qnlangan tu3 pnyahan pnwalang cuko qnlhangan. Pusu balay cinko Netherlands ka kongyey weyryaw, weynyo gasoring, pancngpin mi kikay uri. 60% na pnyahan ka ngalaan cuko, pusu balay ka smnalu gasoring, tyeyncu canpin, asu mi pnyahan pnwalang uri.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)smmalu patas